The One Thousand and One Magellanic Clouds Fields (1001MC) survey aims to measure the kinematics and elemental abundances of many different stellar populations that sample the history of formation and evolution of the Magellanic Clouds. The 1001MC survey is a 4MOST Consortium survey which will collect spectra for about a million stars with G<20 mag (Vega) distributed over an area of about 1000 deg2. This sample includes young massive stars, intermediate-age giant stars and old red giant and horizontal branch stars, as well as different types of pulsating variable stars. These sources trace the spatial extent of the main structures and substructures throughout the galaxies and the 4MOST spectra will, for example, allow us to link kinematical and chemical patterns to these structures to establish the dynamical and chemical evolution of the system. Together with existing and future near-infrared spectra of comparable sensitivity and photometric observations 1001MC will provide the community with an invaluable dataset for a wide range of scientific applications. The 1001MC survey will also target background galaxies with the aim to infer the dust attenuation along the line of sight.